Saturday, May 16, 2020

No Happy Ever After For Our Beloved Fairy Tales - 1479 Words

Write a persuasive piece of opinion journalism about how fairy tales corrupt children for a broadsheet newspaper such as The Guardian aimed at a sophisticated adult audience. No Happy Ever After for Our Beloved Fairy tales? So then, alongside toy guns and pink dresses fairy tales have been placed on the ever growing pile of what not to give to your children. These dastardly tales apparently contain all the social no’s of our society. They are detrimental to girls’ self-image (small waisted perfect princesses that no real girl can live up to), they are full of politically incorrect messages (girls are rescued by dashing princes, ugly equals evil to name a few) and are presumably full of e-numbers, such is the growing stigma against them. For all these crimes and more, parents are being urged to throw these once beloved childhood classics into a cage and throw away the key. Okay, I may be exaggerating. A little. But seriously, do fairy tales really convince sweet little five year olds that, as literary critic and Professor of English at UCLA Karen Rowe states, ‘beauty as a girl’s most valuable asset, and perhaps even her only valuable asset’ or terrify our darling delights so much that they suffer from night mares. Not really. Indeed, in a children’s Cinderella from ‘100 Classic Stories’ the terrifying punishment the ugly stepsisters share is that they must...wash dishes one day a week. As I’m sure you’ll agree this is not going to give children nightmares. In fact,Show MoreRelatedThe Consequences Of Fairy Stories823 Words   |  4 Pagesâ€Å"Happily Ever After,† the three words are so characteristic of a fairy tale. But do fairy tales need to have a happily ever after? The factual answer would be – No. Some of the original versions of the adapted screenplays didn’t have happy endings. In Charles Perrault’s version â€Å"Little Red Riding Hood1,† the wolf ate the grandmother and Little Red, thus leaving us with no happy ending. But fairy tales aren’t based on facts and logic. They are the creation of our imagination and (some) a result ofRead MoreEssay Fairy Tales1141 Words   |  5 PagesFairy Tales Wilhelm and Jacob Grimm are famous for their renditions of some of the most beloved childrens fairy tales. Among the hundreds is the well known (Schneewittchen) Snow-drop. This fairy tale is in many aspects common, imperfect, and vulgar, as are most of the fairy tale translations of the Grimm Brothers. These characteristics are what depict the Grimm fairy tales. The tales were primarily written to entertain and relate to the common peasantsof the 1800s. The stories are notRead MoreFeminism and Fairy Tales1250 Words   |  5 Pagesabout women, one may wonder the origins of such beliefs. It might come as a surprise that these ideals and standards are embedded and have been for centuries in the beloved fairy tales we enjoyed reading as kids. In her analytical essay, â€Å"To Spin a Yarn: The Female Voice in Folklore and Fairy Tales†, Karen Rowe argues that fairy tales present â€Å"cultural norms which exalt passivity, dependency, and self-sacrifice as a female’s cardinal virtues.† Rowe presents an excellent point, which can be supportedRead MoreAn Analysis Of Sleeping Beauty 1112 Words   |  5 PagesAccording to dictionary.com, a folktale is said to be, â€Å"a tale or legend originating and traditional among a people or folk, especially one forming part of the oral tradition of the common people†. What many people don’t realize is our beloved fairy tales, such as â€Å"Sleeping Beauty† have been derived from folktale. â€Å"Sleeping Beauty’s† folktale is exceptionally different from the modern day version that Disney has provided us with. Disney’s â€Å"Sleeping Beauty† and one of the original French versionsRead MoreThe Grimm Brothers Fairy Tales1111 Words   |  5 PagesEverything from music, to movies, and fairytales has been influenced by society. More specifically, society has influenced the Grimm Brothers fairy tales. The Grimm Brothers fairy tales would be considered dark a nd gruesome by today’s standards. Parents would not allow their own children near the stories, which caused society to give the tales a more PG feeling. The tales changed and became what we know them as today. Disney has played a major role in creating the innocent versions that today’s early generationsRead More The Structure and Underlining Meanings of Rapunzel by Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm1406 Words   |  6 PagesGrimm, has the same basic structure as all other fairy tales born from the oral tradition; what is commonly referred to as the opening, main part and ending, is the foundation of the tale. It is around this clearly defined three-part structure of the plot, that invisible layers of meaning exist – often very different for each reader. Between the clever design of the plot – which allows several stories to surface within a seeming individual tale – and multiple layers underneath the literal actionRead MoreThe Setting Created By Burton1589 Words   |  7 Pagesimportant as the characters depicted. This film shows us that fairy tales can take place in a modern setting. Explain, using examples from the film, with reference to Burton’s personal iconography. (Describe the two worlds depicted in Edward Scissorhands. *How do lighting, colour, contrast, and shape influence our understanding of each of these worlds? * How do the characters’ costumes emphasise the contrast between these two worlds add to our understanding of the story and the themes being communicatedRead MoreAnalysis Of The Movie The Beloved Shrek 1125 Words   |  5 Pages Milan: Good Afternoon Eng. Comp 101 class. This is Milan Patel speaking, and I m here with none other than Ally Ary. Today we have a very interesting topic to discuss. Ally: We sure do, Milan! Today, we are going to evaluate the beloved Shrek series, specifically Shrek 2 which was released in 2004 and directed by Andrew Adamson, Conrad Vernon, and Kelly Asbury. Milan: Andrew Adamson’s other great directing moment was during 2008 with the Chronicles of Narnia: Prince Caspian. Conrad Vernon also directedRead MoreHow Princess Culture Is All Round Us1818 Words   |  8 Pagesstories told by people before the advent of writing, or before someone determined them worthy of literary transcription† Socrates). People only took up the profession of making wives tales into literature. Brothers Grimm, the literary works, and Disney, the animated works, are the most familiar to people. The tales of these stories are often based on the female charactors under stereotypes that is at a disadvantage, racial issues that view white as good and black as bad, and marginality that is sternlyRead MoreThe Crucible By Arthur Miller1064 Words   |  5 PagesSalem, Hale is disgusted with what has happened in Salem. Hale is totally aware of how blasphemous the results of the trials are. Miller writes, â€Å"Let you not mistake your duty as I mistook my own. I came into this village like a bridegroom to his beloved, bearing gifts of high religion; the very crowns of holy law I brought, and what I touched with my bright confidence,it died† (Miller,345) This expresses Hale’s frustrations with what has gone on in Salem. He was in full support of cleansing the town

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Analysis Of Sherman Alexie s A Native American Activist

Poverty Inside-in-Out of â€Å"This is What it Means to Say Phoenix, Arizona† Many underprivileged groups such as, African Americans, Native Americans, Hispanics, just to name a few, often struggle to flourish within society due to lack of resources and lose their identity in assumption of their â€Å"inadequacy†. Sherman Alexie, a Native American activist, reveals the effects of poverty through the life of Victor, a young Native American living in a reservation, in his short story, â€Å"This is What it Means to Say Phoenix, Arizona†. Victor, right after he lost job, was notified about his father’s passing. Unable to have the sufficient funds to retrieve his father’s remains from Arizona, he travels alongside his former childhood friend, Tomas Builds-the-Fire. Their journey initially begins with a broken identity, but it brings awareness of how they were able to redefine whom they were despite of their critical situation. â€Å"This is What it Means to Say Phoenix, Arizona† depicts the harsh reality of the Native Americanâ⠂¬â„¢s poverty due to lack of resources, resulting in emotionally straining them and bringing social corrosion. Through Victor’s situation, Alexie presents how the lacks of resources worsen his emotional state. Victor’s emotional severity is projected from the very moment he lost his job and realized that his father’s death. Victor did not see his dad in several years, but spoke to him over the phone a couple times, however held a hereditary affliction that quickly will become

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

What will you be like at your high school reunion Essay Example For Students

What will you be like at your high school reunion Essay An automobile, a vibrant yellow sportscar, pulls up to the front of the school. Its mirrored windows reflect the faces of a large crowd, waiting breathlessly for the car door to open. A man steps out of the driver’s side, dressed in a formal suit, with the roguish appeal and smile of James Bond, the famous 007 agent. He walks around the front of the car and helps his date get out. The two of them stride hand in hand towards the school as flashes go off and people point at them. As the beautiful couple enters the building, an old station wagon chugs its way through the parking lot. I get out, wearing a jacket and tie, and run toward the school. My hair is disheveled, and my socks are mismatched. I am running late because I had started reading a good book earlier that evening and lost track of time. I reach the front doors of the school, and glance at the glass reflection. A thin, slightly balding man stares back at me through black framed glasses. He is wearing a corny tie, which is a little too small, and a belt, cinched up tight. He pats down his hair, smiles, and a little glint of suppressed laughter appears in his eye. Happy with the world, I open the glass paned door and enter. I catch sight of some of my friends, grouped in a circle, each sharing the story of where they had been since graduation. I step right in and listen in on the trials of the Bar Exam, the little things a wife can do to annoy you, and a chance encounter with the President, before she had become President. My turn comes, and I begin my story. I had gone to college, as most of my friends had, but I stayed longer than I originally planned. The company that hired me for my first Co-op was so impressed, that they offered me a job right then. I loved it there, helping to design new products for people, and I loved the challenge of working on many projects at once, but I loved school more. I arranged to Co-op with them each year while I worked my way up to a masters in Mechanical Engineering. It took me a while because I kept taking classes in History, Politics, and other humanities to enjoy myself, learn, as well as to broaden my resume. I still work for that company, and actually hold a pat ent or two. I enjoy working on new problems, always trying to find the best way to make something. I begin to describe my latest design challenge, when I notice my friends’ eyes are all glazed over. Realizing that the problems of transmitting information to a construction robot on the moon was not as exciting to some as it was to me, I apologized for rambling and remained quiet for the remainder of the conversation. The rest of the night, I rambled from one group of friends to another. I told some of my brief stint as a soccer player in college, ruined by a bad knee, which I always mentioned with a groan and a rubbing of the knee itself. I also mentioned how I was still a soccer referee, and bragged how I sometimes did some professional level games. I also tried to get one of my friends to sponsor the soccer team I coached. We were trying to go to New York to compete in the regional tournament. Later that night I left, whistling and humming to myself. My pocket was full of street and email addresses, and my date book had enough lunch dates to satisfy the hungriest or loneliest person in the world. My book, a final refuge if all had gone wrong tonight, laid untouched in my inner pocket. I drove off, more happy with my life, than jealous of a yellow sportscar.

Saturday, April 18, 2020

Scenarios of Labor Relations in Bangladesh free essay sample

In the context of Bangladesh, one can say that the country is not too poorly served by labour laws and their regulations on the employers. Trade union practices providing collective bargaining of workers with their employers are generally allowed in the industries and services here. Labour courts in Bangladesh promote and protect workers rights and enforce laws such as compensation to be paid to workers by employers for the breach of labour laws on their part. Bangladesh is a signatory nation associated to the International Labour Organisation (ILO) and remains committed on the whole to ILO policies. However, trade union practices in Bangladesh seem to be in existence in the countrys older industries and services with new ones-particularly the export oriented garments industries-remaining largely unserved by trade unions. But there are also powerful arguments in favour of such exemptions. The garments industries could never have come to their present number or employ the record number of workers as they do, if they were burdened by demands from workers and lost their competitiveness as a result. We will write a custom essay sample on Scenarios of Labor Relations in Bangladesh or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The example of the garments industries also demonstrates that it should be a prudent course for eligible workers in this country to first find employment in sectors like the garments industries than to restrict the flourishment of such emerging work opportunities by attempting to introduce trade unions in them too early in the day (The New Nation, 2004). It should be advantageous for workers to put less emphasis first on orthodox trade union practices and accept less regulation on the employers so that they feel encouraged to expand business activities. This should maximise employment creation which should go in the favour of unemployed workers when unemployment is a huge problem in Bangladesh. More employment and some income should be a better choice for the countrys workforce with its vast number of unemployed than no employment and no income from too much of trade unionism. Thus, there is a need for responsible trade unionism in the country if there exists a genuine interest among workers leaders to best advance the longer term interests of their followers. Of course, it is not meant that pressure for better looking after the welfare needs of workers ught not to be there when the new enterprises graduate into stronger entities and, thus, become able to smoothly accommodate reasonable demands from their workers (The New Nation, 2004). Many of the countrys garments industries, for instance, would not lose their competitiveness or experience any major reduction in their profits or the control over their workers by allowing the worke rs certain basic rights, such as a weekly holiday, casual leave, a bearable increase in their wages and safe conditions of work in the factories (The New Nation, 2004). From the governments side, the role expected most is imparting of training and education free of cost to workers. The same should increase their productivity and skills which would be invaluable assets in the work places. Governments in many countries play the desired role of training and educating as many workers as possible and look upon government spending on these areas as long term investment on economic growth. The Government in Bangladesh needs to adopt and pursue vigorously similar policies (The New Nation, 2004). . 2. Trade union rights in law: 2. 2. 1. Many restrictions: The Constitution provides for the right to form or join unions. There are many restrictions, however. Before a union can be registered, 30 per cent of workers in an enterprise have to be members and the union can be dissolved if its membership falls below this level. The ILO has informed the government that this is a clear barrier to freedom of association and recommended the law be amended, but that advice has been continuously ignored. Unions must have government approval to be registered, and no trade union action can be taken prior to registration. Unions can only be formed at the factory/establishment level, with some exceptions (such as private road transport, private inland river transport, tea, jute bailing, bidi production) where union formation can take place based on geographic area. There can be no more than three registered trade unions in any establishment. Membership in a union is restricted only to workers currently working at an establishment, meaning that severance from employment also results in the end of a worker’s membership in the union. Candidates for union office have to be current or former employees of an establishment or group of establishments. The Registrar of Trade Unions has wide powers to interfere in internal union affairs. He can enter union premises and inspect documents. The registrar may also cancel the registration of a union, with Labour Court approval (Annual Survey of Violations of Trade Union: Bangladesh, 2007). . 2. 2. Exclusions from union membership: Under the Industrial Relations Ordinance (IRO), workers in the public sector and state enterprises may not belong to a trade union, with the exception of railway, postal and telecommunications workers. Members of the security forces are also denied the right to form unions. Teachers are also forbidden to form trade unions, in either the public or private sector. Managerial and administrative employees can form welfare associations, but they are denied the right to join a union (Annual Survey of Violations of Trade Union: Bangladesh, 2007). . 2. 3. Right to strike not recognized: The right to strike is not specifically recognised in law. Three quarters of a union’s members must agree to a strike before it can go ahead. The government can ban any strike if it continues beyond 30 days (in which case it is referred to the Labour Court for adjudication), if it involves a public service covered by the Essential Services Ordinance or if it is considered a threat to the national interest. In this last case, the 1974 Special Powers Act can be used to detain trade unionists without charge. The government may ban strikes for renewable periods of three months. Sentences of up to 14 years’ forced labour can be passed for offences such as obstruction of transport. Strikes are not allowed in new establishments either owned by foreign investors or established as joint-ventures in collaboration with foreign investors for a period of three years from the date the establishment begins commercial production (Annual Survey of Violations of Trade Union: Bangladesh, 2007). 2. 2. 4. Compulsory conciliation and court referral procedures: The labour law requires that parties to an industrial dispute must follow procedures (such as request conciliation, serve notice of a strike or lock-out, or refer the dispute to the Labour Court for settlement) within a specified period or the labour dispute will be considered legally terminated. The issue or subject of an industrial dispute which is terminated in this manner cannot be raised for a calendar year after such termination (Annual Survey of Violations of Trade Union: Bangladesh, 2007). . 2. 5. Collective bargaining limited: Only registered unions can engage in collective bargaining, and each union must nominate representatives to a Collective Bargaining Authority committee, which is subject to approval by the Registrar of Trade Unions. The National Pay and Wages Commission, whose recommendations are binding, sets public sector workers’ pay levels and other benefits (Annual Survey of Violations of Trade Union: B angladesh, 2007). 2. 2. 6. EPZ Law – significant restrictions continue: The EPZ Trade Union and Industrial Relations Bill 2004 provided for the formation of trade unions in EPZs from 1 November 2006. The ILO Committee on Freedom of Association recommended numerous amendments to the law to bring it into compliance with Conventions no. 87 and 98 which Bangladesh has ratified. The government of Bangladesh has fundamentally failed to take any appreciable steps to comply with the ILO CFA’s ruling. The law foresees the phased introduction of freedom of association, providing for a different type of workers’ organisation at each stage. However, the law does not go so far as to say that trade unions with full associational rights will be allowed to exist in EPZs after the last stage outlined, which will be after 1 November 2008 (Annual Survey of Violations of Trade Union: Bangladesh, 2007). 2. 2. 6. Stage one – worker representation and welfare committees: Until the end of October, workers in Bangladesh’s EPZs were still operating under the first stage of the law. They were only allowed to set up Worker Representation and Welfare Committees (WRWC). The law requires all enterprises in the EPZ to have one WRWC, whose elected representatives have the power to negotiate and sign collective agreements on a limited set of topics but not to strike or organise demonstrations. However, workers and labour activists in Bangladesh reported that in 2006 employers generally refused to enter negotiations or sign an agreement with a WRWC. Under the law, all WRWCs were supposed to cease to exist on 31 October 2006, unless he employer gave an explicit agreement that the WRWC should continue (which they would in practice only do in the case of compliant WRWCs). (Annual Survey of Violations of Trade Union: Bangladesh, 2007). 2. 2. 7. Stage two – workers’ associations: The second stage of the law provides that a trade union, referred to as a Workers’ Association (WA) in the law, can be organised provided over 30 per cent of the workforce reque sts that the association should be set up. More than 50 per cent of the workers in the factory must vote affirmatively for the WA to be formed. This was scheduled to start on 1 November 2006 but in practice there were significantly delays, notably because the Bangladesh Export Processing Zone Authority (BEPZA) did not provide the necessary forms for applying to set up WAs. In new enterprises that start operations after 1 November 2006, workers are not permitted to form an association for the first three months after the commencement of commercial activities. Only one federation can be formed per EPZ, and over 50 per cent of the registered WA in the zone must vote to affiliate before a federation can be formed. The BEPZA Executive Chairman also has almost unlimited authority to deregister a Workers’ Association, should he determine that the WA has committed an unfair practice, contravened any part of the WA’s own constitution, violated any aspect of the EPZ Law, or failed to submit a report to him. Essentially, the law has made illegal the right of workers to talk about unions in their workplaces or to engage in pressure tactics to persuade recalcitrant employers to sign a collective agreement. Finally, the law explicitly forbids any strikes in the EPZs until 31 October 2008. (Annual Survey of Violations of Trade Union: Bangladesh, 2007). 2. 2. 8. Frequent bans on assembly: The law allows the government to ban any public gathering of more than four people, ostensibly only in cases where public order or public health are at risk. In fact, the government applied this banning power much more indiscriminately. (Annual Survey of Violations of Trade Union: Bangladesh, 2007). 2. 2. 9. Labour appellate tribunal created: The new labour law created an avenue for all the judgements, awards and sentences of the Labour Court to be appealed to a Labour Appellate Tribunal. Previously all such appeals had to be taken up by the Supreme Court, resulting in significant delays in reaching a final legal verdict for labour cases (Annual Survey of Violations of Trade Union: Bangladesh, 2007). 2. 3. Trade union rights in practice: The trade union movement is relatively weak in Bangladesh. This is partly owing to the multiplicity of trade unions and partly owing to the considerable intimidation imposed in practice, especially workers’ fear of losing their jobs should they show any sign of union activity. The right to freedom of association and to collective bargaining at the workplace is not respected in the garment sector or on the tea estates. Where unions do file applications for recognition, their registration is often delayed long beyond the 60 days foreseen by law. 2. 3. 1. Strike bans: The government makes regular use of the Essential Services Ordinance in order to ban strikes. The government’s use of this order was continuously applied over the past four years to the Power Development Board, the Dhaka Electric Supply Authority, the Chittagong Port Authority, Biman Airlines, and the Bangladesh Petroleum Corporation (Annual Survey of Violations of Trade Union: Bangladesh, 2007). 2. 3. 2. Restrictions on bargaining and union meetings: Since 2003, the government has banned any collective bargaining in jute mills during production time. Only pro-government supporters are allowed to hold meetings during work time and unions not affiliated with the government’s labour grouping are not allowed to hold protests even on their day off (Annual Survey of Violations of Trade Union: Bangladesh, 2007). 2. 3. 3. Employers take advantage of legal loopholes: Private sector workers are discouraged from undertaking any union activity. The Industrial Relations Ordinance gives considerable leeway for discrimination against union members and organisers by employers. Workers who try to create a trade union are not protected before registration and are therefore often persecuted by their employers, sometimes by violent means or with the help of the police. The names of workers who apply for union registration are frequently passed on to employers who promptly transfer or dismiss them, particularly in the textile sector. Even after registration, workers suspected of carrying out trade union activities are regularly harassed. One popular ploy is to dismiss a worker for misconduct, as they are then no longer entitled to become a trade union officer. A complaint to the Labour Court is of little use given the underlying corruption and serious backlog of cases which, in some instances, can stretch back more than several years (Annual Survey of Violations of Trade Union: Bangladesh, 2007). 2. 3. 4. Export processing zones – anti-union employers: Employers in the EPZs have been consistently hostile towards trade unions, claiming that many of the companies would be ruined and jobs would be lost if they had to have unions. Some employers in the zones take advantage of the absence of trade unions to commit violations of international labour standards, such as sexual harassment, physical violence, unpaid overtime, child labour, non-compliance with minimum wage regulations and deplorable safety conditions. Despite protections for WRWC committee members provided by the EPZ Law, discrimination against leaders of active WRWCs was reported in 2006, and an undetermined yet significant number of these leaders and activist members have been terminated with permission from the BEPZA in processes that workers claimed were biased and unfair. Since there is no dispute resolution mechanism or tribunal for workers, except to appeal to the BEPZA, workers in the EPZs had few other options but to protest. After 1 November 2006, those factories with WRWCs turned their attention to frustrating efforts of the workers to form Workers Associations, again employing a series of tactics including harassment, intimidation, and termination of leaders (Annual Survey of Violations of Trade Union: Bangladesh, 2007). 2. 3. 5. Failure to set up industrial dispute resolution mechanisms in EPZs: Although the EPZ law provides for the establishment of an EPZ Labour Tribunal and an EPZ Labour Appellate Tribunal, a full two years after the passage of the EPZ law, these two tribunals have yet to be established (Annual Survey of Violations of Trade Union: Bangladesh, 2007). 2. 3. 6. Garment industry anti-union: Textile workers outside the zones fare no better. An estimated two million women workers toil for 3,300 employers to make clothes for export in Bangladesh. Workers are regularly sacked, beaten or subjected to false charges by the police for being active in unions. The General Secretary of the United Federation of Garment Workers (UGFW) has been arrested more than a dozen times. Meanwhile, the country’s garment workers are among the lowest paid in the world. They work long hours with very little leave, and face physical, verbal and sexual abuse (Annual Survey of Violations of Trade Union: Bangladesh, 2007). 2. 3. 7. Employer negligence and government indifference kills hundreds of workers: Negligence by employers and the authorities have had appalling consequences that a strong, vigilant trade union could help to avoid. Based on its analysis of publicly available sources, the respected Bangladesh Institute for Labour Studies found that in 2006 there were 845 workers killed and 3018 injured by occupational accidents. The ready-made garment sector led the way in its toll on workers, with 141 killed, and 1578 hurt or maimed (Annual Survey of Violations of Trade Union: Bangladesh, 2007). 2. 3. 8. Ship recycling industry effectively prohibits unions: The Bangladeshi ship recycling industry is based at Chittagong Port. Workers are employed on an as-needs basis, have no contracts and do not sign any documents which could link them to a specific yard. Thus workers have no legal recourse in the event of a dispute. Largely owing to the fear instilled in them – through violence and the precariousness of their employment situation workers have no way of standing up for their rights or even claiming their dues. Any claim would provoke instant dismissal. Unions are de facto forbidden on the sites and union organisers find it very difficult to gain access. Scenarios of Labor Relations in Bangladesh free essay sample In the context of Bangladesh, one can say that the country is not too poorly served by labour laws and their regulations on the employers. Trade union practices providing collective bargaining of workers with their employers are generally allowed in the industries and services here. Labour courts in Bangladesh promote and protect workers rights and enforce laws such as compensation to be paid to workers by employers for the breach of labour laws on their part. Bangladesh is a signatory nation associated to the International Labour Organisation (ILO) and remains committed on the whole to ILO policies. However, trade union practices in Bangladesh seem to be in existence in the countrys older industries and services with new ones-particularly the export oriented garments industries-remaining largely unserved by trade unions. But there are also powerful arguments in favour of such exemptions. The garments industries could never have come to their present number or employ the record number of workers as they do, if they were burdened by demands from workers and lost their competitiveness as a result. We will write a custom essay sample on Scenarios of Labor Relations in Bangladesh or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The example of the garments industries also demonstrates that it should be a prudent course for eligible workers in this country to first find employment in sectors like the garments industries than to restrict the flourishment of such emerging work opportunities by attempting to introduce trade unions in them too early in the day (The New Nation, 2004). It should be advantageous for workers to put less emphasis first on orthodox trade union practices and accept less regulation on the employers so that they feel encouraged to expand business activities. This should maximise employment creation which should go in the favour of unemployed workers when unemployment is a huge problem in Bangladesh. More employment and some income should be a better choice for the countrys workforce with its vast number of unemployed than no employment and no income from too much of trade unionism. Thus, there is a need for responsible trade unionism in the country if there exists a genuine interest among workers leaders to best advance the longer term interests of their followers. Of course, it is not meant that pressure for better looking after the welfare needs of workers ught not to be there when the new enterprises graduate into stronger entities and, thus, become able to smoothly accommodate reasonable demands from their workers (The New Nation, 2004). Many of the countrys garments industries, for instance, would not lose their competitiveness or experience any major reduction in their profits or the control over their workers by allowing the worke rs certain basic rights, such as a weekly holiday, casual leave, a bearable increase in their wages and safe conditions of work in the factories (The New Nation, 2004). From the governments side, the role expected most is imparting of training and education free of cost to workers. The same should increase their productivity and skills which would be invaluable assets in the work places. Governments in many countries play the desired role of training and educating as many workers as possible and look upon government spending on these areas as long term investment on economic growth. The Government in Bangladesh needs to adopt and pursue vigorously similar policies (The New Nation, 2004). . 2. Trade union rights in law: 2. 2. 1. Many restrictions: The Constitution provides for the right to form or join unions. There are many restrictions, however. Before a union can be registered, 30 per cent of workers in an enterprise have to be members and the union can be dissolved if its membership falls below this level. The ILO has informed the government that this is a clear barrier to freedom of association and recommended the law be amended, but that advice has been continuously ignored. Unions must have government approval to be registered, and no trade union action can be taken prior to registration. Unions can only be formed at the factory/establishment level, with some exceptions (such as private road transport, private inland river transport, tea, jute bailing, bidi production) where union formation can take place based on geographic area. There can be no more than three registered trade unions in any establishment. Membership in a union is restricted only to workers currently working at an establishment, meaning that severance from employment also results in the end of a worker’s membership in the union. Candidates for union office have to be current or former employees of an establishment or group of establishments. The Registrar of Trade Unions has wide powers to interfere in internal union affairs. He can enter union premises and inspect documents. The registrar may also cancel the registration of a union, with Labour Court approval (Annual Survey of Violations of Trade Union: Bangladesh, 2007). . 2. 2. Exclusions from union membership: Under the Industrial Relations Ordinance (IRO), workers in the public sector and state enterprises may not belong to a trade union, with the exception of railway, postal and telecommunications workers. Members of the security forces are also denied the right to form unions. Teachers are also forbidden to form trade unions, in either the public or priva te sector. Managerial and administrative employees can form welfare associations, but they are denied the right to join a union (Annual Survey of Violations of Trade Union: Bangladesh, 2007). . 2. 3. Right to strike not recognized: The right to strike is not specifically recognised in law. Three quarters of a union’s members must agree to a strike before it can go ahead. The government can ban any strike if it continues beyond 30 days (in which case it is referred to the Labour Court for adjudication), if it involves a public service covered by the Essential Services Ordinance or if it is considered a threat to the national interest. In this last case, the 1974 Special Powers Act can be used to detain trade unionists without charge. The government may ban strikes for renewable periods of three months. Sentences of up to 14 years’ forced labour can be passed for offences such as obstruction of transport. Strikes are not allowed in new establishments either owned by foreign investors or established as joint-ventures in collaboration with foreign investors for a period of three years from the date the establishment begins commercial production (Annual Survey of Violations of Trade Union: Bangladesh, 2007). 2. 2. 4. Compulsory conciliation and court referral procedures: The labour law requires that parties to an industrial dispute must follow procedures (such as request conciliation, serve notice of a strike or lock-out, or refer the dispute to the Labour Court for settlement) within a specified period or the labour dispute will be considered legally terminated. The issue or subject of an industrial dispute which is terminated in this manner cannot be raised for a calendar year after such termination (Annual Survey of Violations of Trade Union: Bangladesh, 2007). . 2. 5. Collective bargaining limited: Only registered unions can engage in collective bargaining, and each union must nominate representatives to a Collective Bargaining Authority committee, which is subject to approval by the Registrar of Trade Unions. The National Pay and Wages Commission, whose recommendations are binding, sets public sector workers’ pay levels and other benefits (Annual Survey of Violations of Trade Union: B angladesh, 2007). 2. 2. 6. EPZ Law – significant restrictions continue: The EPZ Trade Union and Industrial Relations Bill 2004 provided for the formation of trade unions in EPZs from 1 November 2006. The ILO Committee on Freedom of Association recommended numerous amendments to the law to bring it into compliance with Conventions no. 87 and 98 which Bangladesh has ratified. The government of Bangladesh has fundamentally failed to take any appreciable steps to comply with the ILO CFA’s ruling. The law foresees the phased introduction of freedom of association, providing for a different type of workers’ organisation at each stage. However, the law does not go so far as to say that trade unions with full associational rights will be allowed to exist in EPZs after the last stage outlined, which will be after 1 November 2008 (Annual Survey of Violations of Trade Union: Bangladesh, 2007). 2. 2. 6. Stage one – worker representation and welfare committees: Until the end of October, workers in Bangladesh’s EPZs were still operating under the first stage of the law. They were only allowed to set up Worker Representation and Welfare Committees (WRWC). The law requires all enterprises in the EPZ to have one WRWC, whose elected representatives have the power to negotiate and sign collective agreements on a limited set of topics but not to strike or organise demonstrations. However, workers and labour activists in Bangladesh reported that in 2006 employers generally refused to enter negotiations or sign an agreement with a WRWC. Under the law, all WRWCs were supposed to cease to exist on 31 October 2006, unless he employer gave an explicit agreement that the WRWC should continue (which they would in practice only do in the case of compliant WRWCs). (Annual Survey of Violations of Trade Union: Bangladesh, 2007). 2. 2. 7. Stage two – workers’ associations: The second stage of the law provides that a trade union, referred to as a Workers’ Association (WA) in the law, can be organised provided over 30 per cent of the workforce reque sts that the association should be set up. More than 50 per cent of the workers in the factory must vote affirmatively for the WA to be formed. This was scheduled to start on 1 November 2006 but in practice there were significantly delays, notably because the Bangladesh Export Processing Zone Authority (BEPZA) did not provide the necessary forms for applying to set up WAs. In new enterprises that start operations after 1 November 2006, workers are not permitted to form an association for the first three months after the commencement of commercial activities. Only one federation can be formed per EPZ, and over 50 per cent of the registered WA in the zone must vote to affiliate before a federation can be formed. The BEPZA Executive Chairman also has almost unlimited authority to deregister a Workers’ Association, should he determine that the WA has committed an unfair practice, contravened any part of the WA’s own constitution, violated any aspect of the EPZ Law, or failed to submit a report to him. Essentially, the law has made illegal the right of workers to talk about unions in their workplaces or to engage in pressure tactics to persuade recalcitrant employers to sign a collective agreement. Finally, the law explicitly forbids any strikes in the EPZs until 31 October 2008. (Annual Survey of Violations of Trade Union: Bangladesh, 2007). 2. 2. 8. Frequent bans on assembly: The law allows the government to ban any public gathering of more than four people, ostensibly only in cases where public order or public health are at risk. In fact, the government applied this banning power much more indiscriminately. (Annual Survey of Violations of Trade Union: Bangladesh, 2007). 2. 2. 9. Labour appellate tribunal created: The new labour law created an avenue for all the judgements, awards and sentences of the Labour Court to be appealed to a Labour Appellate Tribunal. Previously all such appeals had to be taken up by the Supreme Court, resulting in significant delays in reaching a final legal verdict for labour cases (Annual Survey of Violations of Trade Union: Bangladesh, 2007). 2. 3. Trade union rights in practice: The trade union movement is relatively weak in Bangladesh. This is partly owing to the multiplicity of trade unions and partly owing to the considerable intimidation imposed in practice, especially workers’ fear of losing their jobs should they show any sign of union activity. The right to freedom of association and to collective bargaining at the workplace is not respected in the garment sector or on the tea estates. Where unions do file applications for recognition, their registration is often delayed long beyond the 60 days foreseen by law. 2. 3. 1. Strike bans: The government makes regular use of the Essential Services Ordinance in order to ban strikes. The government’s use of this order was continuously applied over the past four years to the Power Development Board, the Dhaka Electric Supply Authority, the Chittagong Port Authority, Biman Airlines, and the Bangladesh Petroleum Corporation (Annual Survey of Violations of Trade Union: Bangladesh, 2007). 2. 3. 2. Restrictions on bargaining and union meetings: Since 2003, the government has banned any collective bargaining in jute mills during production time. Only pro-government supporters are allowed to hold meetings during work time and unions not affiliated with the government’s labour grouping are not allowed to hold protests even on their day off (Annual Survey of Violations of Trade Union: Bangladesh, 2007). 2. 3. 3. Employers take advantage of legal loopholes: Private sector workers are discouraged from undertaking any union activity. The Industrial Relations Ordinance gives considerable leeway for discrimination against union members and organisers by employers. Workers who try to create a trade union are not protected before registration and are therefore often persecuted by their employers, sometimes by violent means or with the help of the police. The names of workers who apply for union registration are frequently passed on to employers who promptly transfer or dismiss them, particularly in the textile sector. Even after registration, workers suspected of carrying out trade union activities are regularly harassed. One popular ploy is to dismiss a worker for misconduct, as they are then no longer entitled to become a trade union officer. A complaint to the Labour Court is of little use given the underlying corruption and serious backlog of cases which, in some instances, can stretch back more than several years (Annual Survey of Violations of Trade Union: Bangladesh, 2007). 2. 3. 4. Export processing zones – anti-union employers: Employers in the EPZs have been consistently hostile towards trade unions, claiming that many of the companies would be ruined and jobs would be lost if they had to have unions. Some employers in the zones take advantage of the absence of trade unions to commit violations of international labour standards, such as sexual harassment, physical violence, unpaid overtime, child labour, non-compliance with minimum wage regulations and deplorable safety conditions. Despite protections for WRWC committee members provided by the EPZ Law, discrimination against leaders of active WRWCs was reported in 2006, and an undetermined yet significant number of these leaders and activist members have been terminated with permission from the BEPZA in processes that workers claimed were biased and unfair. Since there is no dispute resolution mechanism or tribunal for workers, except to appeal to the BEPZA, workers in the EPZs had few other options but to protest. After 1 November 2006, those factories with WRWCs turned their attention to frustrating efforts of the workers to form Workers Associations, again employing a series of tactics including harassment, intimidation, and termination of leaders (Annual Survey of Violations of Trade Union: Bangladesh, 2007). 2. 3. 5. Failure to set up industrial dispute resolution mechanisms in EPZs: Although the EPZ law provides for the establishment of an EPZ Labour Tribunal and an EPZ Labour Appellate Tribunal, a full two years after the passage of the EPZ law, these two tribunals have yet to be established (Annual Survey of Violations of Trade Union: Bangladesh, 2007). 2. 3. 6. Garment industry anti-union: Textile workers outside the zones fare no better. An estimated two million women workers toil for 3,300 employers to make clothes for export in Bangladesh. Workers are regularly sacked, beaten or subjected to false charges by the police for being active in unions. The General Secretary of the United Federation of Garment Workers (UGFW) has been arrested more than a dozen times. Meanwhile, the country’s garment workers are among the lowest paid in the world. They work long hours with very little leave, and face physical, verbal and sexual abuse (Annual Survey of Violations of Trade Union: Bangladesh, 2007). 2. 3. 7. Employer negligence and government indifference kills hundreds of workers: Negligence by employers and the authorities have had appalling consequences that a strong, vigilant trade union could help to avoid. Based on its analysis of publicly available sources, the respected Bangladesh Institute for Labour Studies found that in 2006 there were 845 workers killed and 3018 injured by occupational accidents. The ready-made garment sector led the way in its toll on workers, with 141 killed, and 1578 hurt or maimed (Annual Survey of Violations of Trade Union: Bangladesh, 2007). 2. 3. 8. Ship recycling industry effectively prohibits unions: The Bangladeshi ship recycling industry is based at Chittagong Port. Workers are employed on an as-needs basis, have no contracts and do not sign any documents which could link them to a specific yard. Thus workers have no legal recourse in the event of a dispute. Largely owing to the fear instilled in them – through violence and the precariousness of their employment situation workers have no way of standing up for their rights or even claiming their dues. Any claim would provoke instant dismissal. Unions are de facto forbidden on the sites and union organisers find it very difficult to gain access (Annual Survey of Violations of Trade Union: Bangladesh, 2007).

Saturday, March 14, 2020

Anna Karanina essays

Anna Karanina essays L.E.A.P. Journal for Anna Karenina by Leo Tolstoy A. Section covered: Part 1 and 2 (pages 17-245) B. Summary: This story first starts out with chaos in the Oblonskys household. Prince Stephen Oblonsky's wife Dolly found out that he was having an affair with their childrens French governess and threatened to move out of the house and take the kids with her. Stephen Oblonsky does not feel bad for having an affair. What he feels bad for is getting caught by his wife. Even though he is upset he is happy to hear the news that his sister, Anna Karenina, is coming to town though. Later in the section Anna convinces Dolly to stay with her husband and not move out. It did not take much to convince her because her threats were empty. Oblonsky is the head of a distinguished Government Board in Moscow. He is glad to leave his house and go to work to meet his friend Levin after a committee meeting. He remembers that he friend Levin is in love with his sister-in-law Kitty Shcherbatskaya. He later asked her to marry him, but she declines his proposal. Kitty is waiting to marry Count Vronsky. When Anna comes to town her and Vronsky fall in love despite that she is already married. Kitty realized that Vronsky was not going to marry her. She got sick and went abroad to recover. Anna lies to her husband which make them drift farther apart, but she and Vronsky draw closer. C. Analysis: The way this book is starting out it seems like Leo Tolstoy has written it about the love and the marriage of higher powered figures in Russia. He started out the story with the fighting in the Oblonsky household. That seems to refer to the downside of some marriages because Dolly found out about her husband cheating on her. In the Oblonsky house Tolstoy also shows loyalty from Dolly. She knows her threats were empty and she knows that she will forgive her husband. Tolstoy shows different angles with each couple. Anna and her husband Karenin are wel ...

Thursday, February 27, 2020

Competitor Analysis Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Competitor Analysis - Research Paper Example They also provide financial services to customers. The revenue of the automotive sector comes from sales of the vehicles and associated parts and accessories. The company treats marketing and sales incentives as reduction tool for revenue. Majority of the vehicles are transported from the manufacturing plants to customers directly. The vehicles are also put into repurchase option. The revenue from financial services stems from the interests that are generated on the receivables. It also includes the deferred origination costs, which comprise reduction in financing revenue (â€Å"Annual Report 2012†). In 2006, Ford had borrowed $23 billion for restructuring the company, according to the CEO standard. This had created concerns among the investors, even though the company did not file as bankrupt, like its fellow competitors. However, the company has shown effort in reducing total debt to $14.5 billion by the end of 2010 (â€Å"The Bull Case For Ford Stock†). The company has announced to liquefy the fund of a trust, established by them long back, in order to repay $ 5 billion. Chief Financial Officer of Ford has exclaimed that the company has concentrated on reducing the total debt, so that they can strengthen their business and gain trust of the investors. The company has said that the payment made towards elimination of debt has reduced their interest payment to $190 million annually (â€Å"Ford Motor Company Stocks Rise as Debt Decreases†). The best news that was provided by the company at the end of third quarter of 2010 is that the cash generated from automotive operation was $ 2.6 billion and it retired $7 billion of debt which lowered their annual interest payment (â€Å"Ford Is Slowly Climbing Out Of Debt†) In 2008, the company had to encounter major issues regarding the sale of Ford Five Hundred. They had anticipated the vehicle to be a success in the market. However, styling and

Monday, February 10, 2020

Allied Health, Information and Informed Consent Essay

Allied Health, Information and Informed Consent - Essay Example Multidisciplinary care ensures that the team members are able to discuss every aspect of psychological and physical needs of each patient. Multidisciplinary care approach fulfils the best and evidence-based practices for all the patients (Pozgar, 2012) The multidisciplinary care is carried out since it represents the best practice of treatment planning for the patients. It entails a focus on continued care, the development of relevant referral networks that include appropriate pathways to enhance the psychological needs, the development of protocols and pathways for care and treatment. It includes the patients whose cases are discussed by multidisciplinary team. Effective multidisciplinary care entails the improved coordination of the services, great opportunities for participation in clinical trials, improvement in treatment planning and outcomes, improvement in information sharing between the multidisciplinary team members, enhanced management and detection of the patients psychological and emotional needs, and the improved functioning of the team (Pozgar, 2012). The multidisciplinary care has been incorporated in the national clinical practice frameworks, guidelines, frameworks and plans. The multidisciplinary team is focused in treatment planning where the health professionals meet and recommend a treatment plan. Not all the professional treat the patient; as a result, the issues on liability if the patient’s condition worsened derail the multidisciplinary approach. As a result, before any multidisciplinary approach, they had to be the consent of the patient prior to the multidisciplinary meeting, the meeting outcomes should be documented, and the liability implication of the professional team members depended on recommendations of the individual practitioner (Magee, Laroche & Gilligan, 2001). Patients should be informed about the multidisciplinary procedures and meetings, and they should have the